The Dogue de Bordeaux

Everything you need to know about its origin, character and morphology.



Sculptures in the Garden of Plants in Toulouse.

The name originates from the dog breed Molossus which lived in c. 700BC.

He is one of the oldest French dogs and there are several theories about his origin:

One source says that the Assyrians (a nation that historically lived in central and north Mesopotamia, an area now known as Iraq) used the Molossers as guard and hunting dogs, which is portrayed in paintings and carvings from this time. One of the first written descriptions dates from 326BC and describes a large dog with stubby, broad teeth. During archaeological digs in China, Tibet and India bones from this breed were found. The breed was also mentioned by the historian Alexander the Great (356-323BC). During the campaigns of Alexander the Great these dogs moved from Mesopotamia to Epirus (historical geographical area on the west of the Balkan peninsular which today partly belongs to Greece and partly to Albania). Epirus was a roman province. This is one theory of how these dogs were able to spread through the roman empire of that time.

Another source describes a large dog which has as firm a bite as three hunting dogs put together. This was a description of the Alano. I have found two variations of Alano:

1) The name „Alano“ was probably taken from the tribe of Alans (Alan: greek Alanoi, latin Alani, probably from „Al“ great, strong, divine and the Iranian suffix „an“ possibly also from the Iranian Aryan). The Alans were an Iranian nation. During roman servitude many Alans came to Gaul and Britain where they also founded settlements. Even in the early Middle Ages many French and Breton nobility were proud of their Alan-Roman origins.

2) Towards the end of the middle ages on the Spanish mainland there evolved a type of dog widely used as it was an uncompromising hunter of game (deer, bear, boar) a dog of war, and herder of cattle, a guard and watch dog. During the conquest of South America this Spanish mastiff arrived on the Canary Islands. These Alanos (Spanish for mastiff) were used by the conquistadores as dogs of war. Many of these dogs remained on the Canaries where they continued to be bred. On the Canaries they lost many of their typical functions such as bull fighting, the work as beater and herder, and hunting game, so that they almost exclusively were used only as guard dogs.

A third theory is that the Molossers come from the Molossides. This breed is a Greek-Roman fighting dog.

Mac Mahon de Bordeaux, 1908

In the past the Dogue de Bordeaux was used as guard dog, drover, hunting dog and house and watch dog. These varied uses show that this breed is a very intelligent, fearless and strong nerved dog, which is loyal to his owner and the family.

The Bordeaux Mastiff was first 1863 called its present name of „Dogue de Bordeaux“during the Paris Dog Show Jardin d’Acclimatation. The cataloguing of a breed of dog in France was more significant than the show. It is thought that as the winner of the show, called Magentas, came from the Bordeaux region so the Bordeaux Mastiff got its name.

Dogue de Bordeaux, Paris 1886

There are probably a vast number of other theories about the origins of the breed. In my opinion the origin plays a minor role. It is only important that we have the Bordeaux Mastiff and I am delighted to own such wonderful dogs and have such joy in doing so.

This article contains information from various sources. As I am not a researcher, I ask you to forgive any errors.

F. Stuppy


Assyrer-mit-Molosser-Tablette de pierre représentant un Assyrien avec un molosse.
Stone tablet showing an Assyrian with a Molosser.
Alano Der Name “Alano” wird wahrscheinlich von dem Volkstamm der Alanen abgeleitet (Alanen: griech. Alanoi, lat. Alani, wahrscheinlich von „Al“ „groß, stark, göttlich“ und der iranischen Nachsilbe „an“ für eine Abstammung, eventuell auch von iran. “Aryan”). Die Alanen waren ein iranisches Volk. In römischen Diensten kamen viele Alanen nach Gallien und Britannien, wo sie auch Siedlungen gründeten. Noch im Frühmittelalter waren viele französische und bretonische Adlige stolz auf ihre alanisch-römische Herkunft.
Alano Vautre
Gravure sur cuivre (env. 100 ap. J.-C.) représentant un légionnaire romain avec un dogue antique.
Copper engraving (c. 100AD) a Roman legionnaire with an antique mastiff.
Sculpture d'un dogue de Bordeaux étreignant un loup - Musée National d'Histoire Naturelle à Paris
Sculpture of a Dogue de Bordeaux fighting a wolf - Museum of Natural History in Paris.
Dogue de Bordeaux avec un soldat sanitaire (1ère Guerre)
A Dogue de Bordeaux with a sanitarian soldier (First World War)
Sultane, propriétaire M. Ch. Eisler - Cette gravure a été publiée en 1892 dans la revue « Chasse et pêche ».
Sultane, holder M. Ch. Eisler - This engraving was published 1892 in the magazine "Hunting and Fishing”.
Illustration du journal "L'ACCLIMATATION" sur l'exposition canine de Paris 1892, 1er prix à Buffalo et Sultane, Propriétaire : M. Ch. Eisler
Illustration in the Journal "L'ACCLIMATATION" of the Paris Dog Show 1892, highest award to Buffalo and Sultan, holder: M. Ch. Eisler.
Concours du journal l'ACCLIMATATION pour la représentation des plus beaux types Lauréat : MARS, DOGUE DE BORDEAUX, Premier prix, exposition canine de Reims, 1893 Appartenant à M. le Dr. Wiel
Contest of the newspaper l'ACCLIMATATION for the representation of the most beautiful types Winner : MARS, DOGUE DE BORDEAUX, First prize, dog show in Reims, 1893 Holder: Dr. Wiel
Cora et Turc, propriétaire M. S. Woodiwiss, Londres – Reproduction de « The Stoch Keepser ».
Cora and Turc, holder M. S. Woodiwiss, London - Reproduced by The Stoch Keepser.
Bordeaux Dogge um 1899 Dogue de Bordeaux
Dr. C. J. Lougest´s Black Peter "American Kennel Gazette" 1899
Le Dogue de Bordeaux en 1923, à cette époque avec beaucoup de blanc aux pattes, sur le poitrail et sur la robe.
The Dogue de Bordeaux 1923. At that time still with much white at the paws, in the chest area and on the coat.
Illustration de 1880 Bataille doit son surnom « L'Invincible » à son invincibilité lors des combats d'ours organisés dans les Pyrénées françaises et espagnoles. A cette époque, les dogues de Bordeaux s'appelaient encore Douge de Midi et Dogo di Bourgos ou Dogo Spagnolo en Espagne.
Illustration from 1880. Bataille earned its nickname "The Invincible" at bear fights in the French and Spanish Pyrenees. At that time, Bordeaux dogs were still called Douge de Midi and in Spain Dogo di Bourgos or Dogo Spagnolo.

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